Balloon pulmonary angioplasty - Reperfusion injury

Factors associated with reperfusion injury after balloon pulmonary artery balloon angiolasty are
(1) Increase in diameter >70%
(2) Increase in PA pressure >170%
(3) Distal mean PA pressure > 20 mmHg

From Arnold LW et al. AJC 1988;62:327-330.


Stent - Over-expansion tests

From Bratincsak, A. et al. Congenital Heart Dis 2015;10:51-6.


Stent (Diameter to Length)

(From Diagnostic and Interventional Catheterization in Congenital Heart Disease. 2nd ed. by James E. Lock et al).


Houston Hypertension Charts
(Based on height)
(Click on the image to enlarge)


Anomalies of Inferior Vena Cava

Interrupted IVC with Azygos Vein Continuation
(Right supracardinal vein > Azygos vein)

Bilateral IVC

Both images above are from Netter's Atlas
(From Tal Geva. Anomalies of Systemic Veins chapter in Moss & Adams 8th ed. Page 856)

Inferior Vena Cava - Embryology