Systemic Veins in the thorax & Thoracic duct

Systemic Veins and Thoracic Duct
Development of systemic veins: (Color-coded according to development)
Azygos and Hemiazygos veins:

Pericardial reflections

Anterior view:

Oblique & Transverse Sinuses of pericardium:

Transverse sinus from Echo: (Parasternal long axis view)
Figure from "Surgical Anatomy of the Heart - Wilcox, Cook, Anderson" 3rd ed. 2004.
Transverse sinus (Anatomic specimen):
Figure from "Surgical Anatomy of the Heart - Wilcox, Cook, Anderson" 3rd ed. 2004.

Pulmonary vein stenosis

Surgery: Sutureless repair of Pulmonary vein stenosis:
(Lacour-Gayet F, et al. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 1996;89:633-36)

Modification to Sutureless Repair of Pulmonary vein stenosis (Toronto group):
(Figure from Najm HK, et al. JTCVS 1998;115:468-70Follow this link for pericardial reflections

Additional papers:

Seale AN, et al. Heart 2009;95:1944-9. Pulmonary vein stenosis: the UK, Ireland and Sweden collaborative study. Insightful epidemiologic article about this rare disease.



Social Issues: Information resources for Families

(Service by Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation)

(Service provided by California HEARTconnection, an all-volunteer, nonprofit support network)

Will add more such websites in future.


ICU - Postop. chest pain

16 yr old boy, Postop after CABG for anomalous aortic origin of RCA from left coronary cusp. Complains of chest pain on first postop. day. (Prior EKG - immediately postop. did not show any ST changes).