Cath Lab _ Normal values


Image from Morton Kern's Handbook of Cardiac catheterization.


Covid - Return to Play for High School Athlete


(Click on the image to enlarge)

From Kim JH., et al. Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Athletic Heart. Emerging Perspectives on Pathology, Risks and Return to Play. JAMA Cardiology 2020 (Published online Oct 26, 2020, JAMAcardiol.doi.10.1001/jamacardio.2020.5890



 Salt stick (Na 500, K 100) Vitassium

(Note: Salt stick Plus has caffeine in it. Other Salt stick preparations have Ca and Mg - but with lower amounts of Na and K.)

Thermotabs 1g

(4-5 tab per day, depending upon activity level, duration)

Doxy-dopa (Northera) - Alpha-1 agonist. 100 mg bid. May increase to tid. Expensive. Therefore, may be used when Midodrine fails

Pyridostigmine. Ach esterase inhibitor. Increases vascular tone. May help GI symptoms. 30 mg tid (half of 60 mg tab). Side effects - muscle shakiness.


Test occlusion of Fontan fenestration

Test occlusion of Fontan fenestration:
Criteria for decision making in one old publication - Bridges ND, et al. JACC 1995;25:1712-17.

Mean RA pressure > 18 mmHg
AV difference of saturation increased by > 33%
RA saturation < 40%.

In patients with unfavorable outcome (2 yr follow-up after fenestration closure); systemic venous pressure increased more than 40% and systemic venous saturation decreased more than 23%.

There are other criteria in other publications.


Stents - Maximum Expandable Diameters

(From Congenital Heart Disease 2015;10:51-63)


Abernathy Syndrome

Jain V, et al. J Pediatr Surg 2019;54:76005.