This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included young adults born moderately to extremely preterm and age-matched, term-born participants. CMR was performed with a 3.0-T imager that included cine imaging for the quantification of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes and function and native saturation recovery T1 mapping for the assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Vhttps://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/ryct.210224alues between preterm and term were compared by using the Student t test. Associations between T1 values and other variables were analyzed by using linear regression and multivariate regression.
Of the 50 young-adult participants, 32 were born preterm (mean age, 25.8 years ± 4.2 [SD]; 23 women) and 18 were born at term (mean age, 26.2 years ± 5.4; 10 women). Native T1 values were significantly higher in participants born preterm than in participants born at term (1477 msec ± 77 vs 1423 msec ± 71, respectively; unadjusted P = .0019). Native T1 values appeared to be positively associated with indexed LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (β = 2.1, standard error = 0.7 and β = 3.8, standard error = 1.2, respectively), the RV end-diastolic volume index (β = 1.3, standard error = 0.6), and the LV mass index (β = 2.5, standard error = 0.9). Higher T1 values may be associated with reduced cardiac systolic strain measures and diastolic strain measures. Five-minute Apgar scores were inversely associated with native T1 values.
Young adults born moderately to extremely preterm exhibited significantly higher native T1 values than age-matched, term-born young adults.
Determine the prevalence and predictors associated with underdiagnosis and undertreatment of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance/diabetes) among adult survivors of childhood cancer at high risk of premature CVD.
METHODS AND RESULTS
This was a cross‐sectional study of adult‐aged survivors of childhood cancer treated with anthracyclines or chest radiotherapy, recruited across 9 US metropolitan regions. Survivors completed questionnaires and in‐home clinical assessments. The comparator group was a matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the risk (odds ratios) of CVD risk factor underdiagnosis and undertreatment among survivors compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Survivors (n=571; median age, 37.7 years and 28.5 years from cancer diagnosis) were more likely to have a preexisting CVD risk factor than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=345; P<0.05 for all factors). While rates of CVD risk factor underdiagnosis were similar (27.1% survivors versus 26.1% National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; P=0.73), survivors were more likely undertreated (21.0% versus 13.9%, P=0.007; odds ratio, 1.8, 95% CI, 1.2–2.7). Among survivors, the most underdiagnosed and undertreated risk factors were hypertension (18.9%) and dyslipidemia (16.3%), respectively. Men and survivors who were overweight/obese were more likely to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. Those with multiple adverse lifestyle factors were also more likely undertreated (odds ratio, 2.2, 95% CI, 1.1–4.5). Greater health‐related self‐efficacy was associated with reduced undertreatment (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.8).
Greater awareness of among primary care providers and cardiologists, combined with improving self‐efficacy among survivors, may mitigate the risk of underdiagnosed and undertreated CVD risk factors among adult‐aged survivors of childhood cancer.