Echo artifacts

Five types of artifacts:
1) Mirror image artifact (Created by residual waves continuing to travel beyond the object of interest. Then, gets reflected back from interfaces beyond. These waves are once again reflected by the object giving rise to the second image.
 2) Reverberation artifact
 3) Side lobe artifact  (Produced by radial vibration of piezo electric crystals, instead of the longitudinal vibrations of the main beam)

4) Grating lobes artifact (no image) occurs in array transducers (?)

5) Acoustic shadowing (occurs due to highly reflective interface such as calcification).
(All images are from  TEE for congenital heart disease by Wong PC, Miller-Hance WC. Springer Verlog London. 2014.)

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